Covid 19 Update

Given the national effort to reduce the spread of Covid-19, we have decided to provide all of our clinic appointments virtually.

This service is recognised and endorsed by all of the major health insurers.

Get in touch to arrange your online consultation with Gynaecologist Bim Williams from the comfort of your own home. Your care is our priority and if you have any concerns we are here for you.

Stay at home. Stay Safe. Stay Strong.

Consultant Gynaecologist and Specialist in Pelvic Floor Surgery


What is Infertility?

Infertility is a failure to conceive despite regular unprotected sexual intercourse at least 2- 3 times a week.

84% of couples will achieve a pregnancy within a year and 95% by 2 years.

About one in seven couples living in the western world have problems conceiving

Primary infertility: Failure of a couple to conceive or have achieved a pregnancy in the past.

Secondary infertility: Failure of a couple who have had one or more pregnancies to conceive.

What are the risk factors for infertility?

Age: A woman’s fertility declines from around 32 years of age.

Smoking: Smoking significantly increases infertility in both men and women.

Alcohol: Alcohol misuse can lower male fertility

Obesity: obesity in women and a sedentary lifestyle affect fertility and in a man can result in abnormal sperm.

Eating disorders: Being underweight causes problems with fertility

Diet: Lack of iron, folic acid, zinc and vitamin B12 can cause infertility problems

Over exercise: Exercising for more than 7 hours a day can affect ovulation.

Sexually transmitted infections: Chlamydia can cause tubal damage as can gonorrhea amongst many other infections.

Exposure to chemicals: pesticides, herbicides and solvents have been linked with infertility.

Mental stress: Ovulation and sperm production are affected by mental stress

What are the causes of infertility?

Female problems:

Male problems:

When should a couple seek medical advice?

Couples should try for a minimum of one year before seeking medical advice. If either of the couple have a known medical condition that can affect fertility, or the female partner is older than 35 years medical help could be sought after 6 months of trying. These patients should be investigated and referred to a specialist centre.

What investigations do we need?

A detailed medical history and examination of both partners is undertaken.

Fertility Tests for men:

Semen analysis

Blood tests if indicated

Fertility Tests for women:

Chlamydia screen

Rubella Status

Hormone profile

Assessment of Tubal patency

Pelvic ultrasound

Assessment of ovarian reserve (AMH)

What Treatment options are available?

Ovulation induction: Medication is given to stimulate the ovary into developing eggs that mature for ovulation. This can be in the form of tablets (Chlomiphene citrate) or injections called Gonadotrophins

Artificial Insemination: Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a process where sperm is washed and prepared for placement into the uterine cavity, bypassing the cervix.

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF):Is a process where eggs are collected and fertilized outside the body in a laboratory.

Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a technique used to fertilise eggs by injecting a single sperm into a mature egg.

Donor egg or sperm: Third party provides either sperm or eggs with the purpose of helping the infertile couple achieve a pregnancy

These treatments are available in specialist infertility centres

Further discussions will depend on the cause identified for infertility